HolGoun™ Healthcare (Pty) Ltd

HolGoun House

269 Veale Street, Nieuw Muckleneuk

Pretoria, 0181, Gauteng, RSA


 

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Glossary

  • ADHD (Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) - A disorder characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity.

  • ALA (Alpha-linolenic acid)  -  Is a type of Omega 3, a polyunsaturated fat found in supplements and in some foods -- mainly walnuts, flaxseed, and certain vegetable oils. ALA obtained through diet can be converted to other Omega 3 fatty acids, such as DHA and EPA. However, this is a very small conversion. 

  • Allergen – An allergen is a substance that can cause an allergic reaction. These typically include: dust, pollen, mites, chemicals, perfumes etc.

  • Antioxidants – Antioxidants are substances that may protect your cells against the effects of free radicals. Free radicals are molecules produced when your body breaks down food, or by environmental exposures to tobacco smoke and radiation.

  • Asthma – Recurrent attacks of difficulty breathing, with airway inflammation and wheezing due to spasmodic contraction of the bronchi. Some cases are allergic manifestations in sensitized persons; others are provoked by factors such as vigorous exercise, irritant particles, psychological stress, and others.

  • Basophils – Basophils are part of your immune system that normally protects your body from infection, but can also be partly responsible for your asthma symptoms. Basophils are a type of white blood cell that is involved in inflammatory reactions in your body, especially those related to allergies and asthma. When stimulated, basophils release histamine and other enzymes that can lead to inflammation, bronchoconstriction, and asthma symptoms.

  • Bioavailability – The degree to which or rate at which a drug or other substance is absorbed or becomes available at the site of physiological activity after administration.

  • Docosahexanoic acid – Docosahexanoic acid (DHA) is an Omega 3 fatty acid that is a primary structural component of the human brain and retina. Cold-water oceanic fish and krill oils are rich in DHA. Omega 3 found in Krill oil is bound to phospholipids (building blocks of cells not found in fish oil) not triglycerides which increases bioavailability so that lower doses can be administered.  Most of the DHA in krill, fish and complex organisms with access to cold-water oceanic foods originates in photosynthetic and heterotrophic microalgae, and becomes increasingly concentrated in organisms, as they move up the food chain. DHA is also commercially manufactured from microalgae.

  • Eicosapentanoic acid – Eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) is one of several Omega 3 fatty acids used by the body. It is found in cold water fatty fish, krill, complex organisms and in fish oil supplements, along with Docosahexanoic acid (DHA).

  • Omega 3 found in Krill oil is bound to phospholipids (building blocks of cells not found in fish oil) not triglycerides which increases bioavailability so that lower doses can be administered. Omega 3 fatty acids are part of a healthy diet that helps lower risk of heart disease. Increased intake of EPA has beneficial effects on coronary heart disease, high blood pressure, and inflammatory disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis. Most people in the Western world do not get enough Omega 3 fatty acids in their diet.

  • Essential Fatty Acids - or EFAs, are fatty acids that humans and other animals must ingest because the body requires them for good health but cannot synthesize them. The term "essential fatty acid" refers to fatty acids required for biological processes, and not those that only act as fuel. These include Omega 3 and Omega 6 fatty acids.

  • Fat-soluble Vitamins – Those (Vitamins A, D, E, and K) that are soluble in fat solvents, and are absorbed along with dietary fats; they are not normally excreted in the urine and tend to be stored in the body in moderate amounts.

  • Free Radicals - Compounds with an unpaired electron, which makes them extremely reactive. Free radicals can damage cells, and may play a role in heart disease, cancer and other diseases.

  • Hydrogenated Oil - Unsaturated oils that have had hydrogen added to them to solidify them and make them more resistant to spoilage.

  • Immunoglobulin E – Immunoglobulin E (IgE) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases, including asthma. For this reason, IgE-mediated immunologic pathways have long represented an attractive target for therapeutic agents in asthma. IgE elicits an immune response by binding to receptors found on the surface of mast cells and basophils, and are also found on eosinophil’s, monocytes, macrophages and platelets in humans.

  • Inflammation – Inflammation is a process by which the body’s white blood cells and chemicals protect us from infection and foreign substances such as bacteria and viruses. When inflammation occurs normally, chemicals from the body’s white blood cells are released to protect us from foreign substances. Sometimes, however, the white blood cells and their inflammatory chemicals cause damage to the body’s tissues. In some diseases, however, the body’s defence system (immune system) inappropriately triggers an inflammatory response when there are no foreign substances to fight off. In these diseases, called autoimmune diseases, the body’s normally protective immune system causes damage to its own tissues. The body responds as if normal tissues are infected or somehow abnormal.

  • Krill Oil - An oil rich in Omega 3 fatty acids extracted from shrimp-like crustaceans–contains astaxanthin, a powerful anti-oxidant known to promote healthy cholesterol levels that are already within a normal range.

  • Leukotriene - A powerful inflammatory mediator. Leukotriene is important in inflammation and allergic reactions because of its ability to constrict blood vessels and attract various types of immune cells.

  • Lipoxins - Lipoxins are a series of anti-inflammatory mediators.

  • Mast Cells – A mast cell is a resident cell of several types of tissues and contains many granules rich in histamine and heparin. Although best known for their role in allergy and anaphylaxis, mast cells play an important protective role as well, being intimately involved in wound healing and defence against pathogens.

  • Neuromuscular disease - A very broad term that encompasses many diseases and ailments that impair the functioning of the muscles, either directly, being pathologies of the voluntary muscle, or indirectly, being pathologies of nerves or neuromuscular junctions.

  • Occupational allergic rhinitis – Is caused by exposure to allergens in the workplace.

  • Perennial allergic rhinitis – Occurring continuously or intermittently all year round, due to exposure to a more or less ever-present allergen, marked by sudden attacks of sneezing, swelling of the nasal mucosa with profuse watery discharge, itching of the eyes and lacrimation.

  • Phospholipids - Phospholipids are essential molecules that are found in cellular membranes. Two important phospholipids are Phosphatidylcholine and Phosphatidylserine. A cell in the human body cannot function normally without these two crucial phospholipids. As the name implies, phospholipids are made of the combination of lipids (fats) and the mineral phosphorus.

  • Prostaglandins - A potent substance that acts like a hormone and is found in many bodily tissues; produced in response to trauma and may affect blood pressure and metabolism and smooth muscle activity

  • Rheumatoid arthritis - Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease that causes inflammation and deformity of the joints. Other problems throughout the body (systemic problems) may also develop, including inflammation of blood vessels (vascularise), the development of bumps (called rheumatoid nodules) in various parts of the body, lung disease, blood disorders, and weakening of the bones (osteoporosis).

  • Rhinitis – Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose.

  • Saturated Fats - Saturated fat is fat that consists of triglycerides containing only saturated fatty acid radicals. Most saturated fats come from animal sources, such as beef, veal, lamb, poultry, milk, butter, cheese and lard.

  • Seasonal allergic rhinitis – Is an allergic reaction to pollens and spores (depending on the season and area) as they are carried with the wind.

  • Sporadic allergic rhinitis – Is an ntermittent brief episodes of allergic rhinitis. Rhinitis is caused by intermittent exposure to an allergen.

  • Trans Fats - Trans fat is the common name for unsaturated fats. Because the term refers to the configuration of a double carbon-carbon bond, trans fats are sometimes monounsaturated or polyunsaturated, but never saturated.

  • Trans fats are not essential fatty acids. The consumption of trans fats increases the risk of coronary heart disease by raising levels of LDL cholesterol and lowering levels of "good"  cholesterol.

  • The form of fat found in various lipoproteins in the bloodstream. High levels of triglycerides are usually indicative of high levels of insulin and a developing increase in cholesterol.  

  • Unsaturated Fats - A fat or fatty acid in which there is at least one double bond within the fatty acid chain. A fat molecule is monounsaturated if it contains one double bond, and polyunsaturated if it contains more than one double bond.

  • (Unsaturated fats) a fat or oil found mainly in vegetables; thought to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. Also known as ‘the good fat’

  • Water-soluble vitamins – All the vitamins soluble in water (all except vitamin A, D, E and K), which are excreted in the urine and are not stored in the body in appreciable quantities.